APJ Abuul Kalam

A. P. J. Abdul Kalam

This article is about the former President of India. For the Indian freedom fighter, see Abul Kalam Azad.

A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
Bharat Ratna
Apj abdul kalam.JPG
Kalam at the International Book Fair, Trivandrum, 2014
In office
25 July 2002 – 25 July 2007
Prime Minister
Vice President
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Personal details
Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam
15 October 1931
Rameswaram, Ramnad District, Madras Presidency, British India
(now in Ramanathapuram District, Tamil Nadu, India)
27 July 2015 (aged 83)
Shillong, Meghalaya, India
Aerospace scientist
Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen "A. P. J." Abdul Kalam (Listeni/ˈæbdʊl kəˈlɑːm/; 15 October 1931 – 27 July 2015) was the 11th President of India from 2002 to 2007. A career scientist[clarification needed] turned reluctant politician, Kalam was born and raised in Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, and studied physics and aerospace engineering. He spent the next four decades as a scientist and science administrator, mainly at the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Indian Space Research Organisation(ISRO) and was intimately involved in India's civilian space program and military missile development efforts.[2]He thus came to be known as the Missile Man of India for his work on the development of ballistic missile and launch vehicle technology.[3][4][5]He also played a pivotal organizational, technical, and political role in India's Pokhran-IInuclear tests in 1998, the first since the original nuclear test by India in 1974.[6]
Kalam was elected President of India in 2002 with the support of both the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party and the opposition Indian National Congress. After serving a term of five years, he returned to his civilian life of education, writing and public service. He was a recipient of several prestigious awards, including the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honour.


Early life and education

Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam was born on 15 October 1931 to a Tamil Muslim family in Rameswaram in the State of Tamil Nadu. His father's name was Jainulabudeen, a boat owner, and his mother Ashiamma, a housewife.[7][8][9][10]His father owned a ferry that took Hindu pilgrims back and forth between Rameswaramand the now-extinct Dhanushkodi.[11][12]Kalam was the youngest of four brothers and one sister in his family.[13][14][15]He came from a poor background and started working at an early age to supplement his family's income.[16]After completing school, Kalam distributed newspapers to contribute to his father's income.[16][17]In his school years he had average grades but was described as a bright and hardworking student who had a strong desire to learn and spend hours on his studies, especially mathematics.[17]After completing his education at the Ramanathapuram Schwartz Matriculation School, Kalam went on to attend Saint Joseph's College, Tiruchirappalli, then affiliated with the University of Madras, from where he graduated in physics in 1954.[18]
He moved to Madras in 1955 to study aerospace engineering in Madras Institute of Technology.[10]While Kalam was working on a senior class project, the Dean was dissatisfied with his lack of progress and threatened to revoke his scholarship unless the project was finished within the next three days. Kalam met the deadline, impressing the Dean, who later said to him, "I was putting you under stress and asking you to meet a difficult deadline".[19]He narrowly missed achieving his dream of becoming a fighter pilot, as he placed ninth in qualifiers, and only eight positions were available in the IAF.[20]

Career as a scientist

This was my first stage, in which I learnt leadership from three great teachers—Dr Vikram Sarabhai , Prof Satish Dhawan and Dr Brahm Prakash. This was the time of learning and acquisition of knowledge for me.
A P J Abdul Kalam[21]
After graduating from the Madras Institute of Technology in 1960, Kalam joined the Aeronautical Development Establishment of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) as a scientist. He started his career by designing a small helicopter for the Indian Army, but remained unconvinced by his choice of a job at DRDO.[22]Kalam was also part of the INCOSPAR committeeworking under Vikram Sarabhai, the renowned space scientist.[10]In 1969, Kalam was transferred to the Indian Space Research Organisation(ISRO) where he was the project director of India's first Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-III) which successfully deployed the Rohini satellite in near-earth orbit in July 1980; Kalam had first started work on an expandable rocket project independently at DRDO in 1965.[2]In 1969, Kalam received the government's approval and expanded the programme to include more engineers.[21]
Kalam addresses engineering students at IIT Guwahati
In 1963–64, he visited NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia; Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland; and Wallops Flight Facility.[8][23]Between the 1970s and 1990s, Kalam made an effort to develop the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle(PSLV) and SLV-III projects, both of which proved to be successful.
Kalam was invited by Raja Ramanna to witness the country's first nuclear test Smiling Buddha as the representative of TBRL, even though he had not participated in its development. In the 1970s, Kalam also directed two projects, Project Devil and Project Valiant, which sought to develop ballistic missiles from the technology of the successful SLV programme.[24]Despite the disapproval of the Union Cabinet, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi allotted secret funds for these aerospace projects through her discretionary powers under Kalam's directorship.[24]Kalam played an integral role convincing the Union Cabinet to conceal the true nature of these classified aerospace projects.[24]His research and educational leadership brought him great laurels and prestige in the 1980s, which prompted the government to initiate an advanced missile programme under his directorship.[24]Kalam and Dr V S Arunachalam, metallurgist and scientific adviser to the Defence Minister, worked on the suggestion by the then Defence Minister, R. Venkataraman on a proposal for simultaneous development of a quiver of missiles instead of taking planned missiles one after another.[25]R Venkatraman was instrumental in getting the cabinet approval for allocating ₹388 crores for the mission, named Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) and appointed Kalam as the chief executive.[25]Kalam played a major part in developing many missiles under the mission including Agni, an intermediate range ballistic missile and Prithvi, the tactical surface-to-surface missile, although the projects have been criticised for mismanagement and cost and time overruns.[25][26]
Kalam served as the Chief Scientific Adviser to the Prime Minister and the Secretary of the Defence Research and Development Organisation from July 1992 to December 1999. The Pokhran-IInuclear tests were conducted during this period in which he played an intensive political and technological role. Kalam served as the Chief Project Coordinator, along with Rajagopala Chidambaram, during the testing phase.[8][27]Media coverage of Kalam during this period made him the country's best known nuclear scientist.[28]However, the director of the site test, K Santhanam, said that the thermonuclear bomb had been a "fizzle" and criticisied Kalam for issuing an incorrect report.[29]Both Kalam and Chidambaram dismissed the claims.[30]
In 1998, along with cardiologist Soma Raju, Kalam developed a low cost coronary stent, named the "Kalam-Raju Stent".[31][32]In 2012, the duo designed a rugged tablet computer for health care in rural areas, which was named the "Kalam-Raju Tablet".[33]


Kalam served as the 11th President of India, succeeding K. R. Narayanan. He won the 2002 presidential election with an electoral vote of 922,884, surpassing the 107,366 votes won by Lakshmi Sahgal. His term lasted from 25 July 2002 to 25 July 2007.[34]
On 10 June 2002, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) which was in power at the time, expressed that they would nominate Kalam for the post of President,[35][36]and both the Samajwadi Party and the Nationalist Congress Party backed his candidacy.[37][38]After the Samajwadi Party announced its support for Kalam, Narayanan chose not to seek a second term in office, leaving the field clear.[39]Kalam said of the announcement of his candidature:
I am really overwhelmed. Everywhere both in Internet and in other media, I have been asked for a message. I was thinking what message I can give to the people of the country at this juncture.[40]
On 18 June, Kalam filed his nomination papers in the Indian Parliament, accompanied by Vajpayee and his senior Cabinet colleagues.[41]
Kalam along with Vladimir Putin and Manmohan Singh during his presidency
The polling for the presidential election began on 15 July 2002 in Parliament and the state assemblies, with the media claiming that the election was a one-sided affair and Kalam's victory was a foregone conclusion; the count was held on 18 July.[42]Kalam became the 11th president of the Republic of India in an easy victory,[43]and moved into the Rashtrapati Bhavan after he was sworn in on 25 July.[44]Kalam was the third President of India to have been honoured with a Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honour, before becoming the President. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (1954) and Dr Zakir Hussain (1963) were the earlier recipients of Bharat Ratna who later became the President of India.[45]He was also the first scientist and the first bachelor to occupy Rashtrapati Bhawan.[46]
During his term as president, he was affectionately known as the People's President,[47][48][49]saying that signing the Office of Profit Bill was the toughest decision he had taken during his tenure.[50][51]Kalam was criticised for his inaction in deciding the fate of 20 out of the 21 mercy petitions submitted to him during his tenure.[52]Article 72 of the Constitution of India empowers the President of India to grant pardons, and suspend or commute the death sentence of convicts on death row.[52][53]Kalam acted on only one mercy plea in his five-year tenure as president, rejecting the plea of rapist Dhananjoy Chatterjee, who was later hanged.[52]Perhaps the most notable plea was from Afzal Guru, a Kashmiri terrorist who was convicted of conspiracy in the December 2001 attack on the Indian Parliament and was sentenced to death by the Supreme Court of India in 2004.[53]While the sentence was scheduled to be carried out on 20 October 2006, the pending action on his mercy plea resulted in him remaining on death row.[53]He also took the controversial decision to impose President's Rule in Bihar in 2005.[54]
In September 2003, in an interactive session in PGI Chandigarh, Kalam supported the need of Uniform Civil Code in India, keeping in view the population of the country.[55][56][57][58]
At the end of his term, on 20 June 2007, Kalam expressed his willingness to consider a second term in office provided there was certainty about his victory in the 2007 presidential election.[59]However, two days later, he decided not to contest the Presidential election again stating that he wanted to avoid involving Rashtrapati Bhavan from any political processes.[60]He did not have the support of the left parties, Shiv Senaand UPA constituents, to receive a renewed mandate.[61][62]
Nearing the expiry of the term of the 12th President Pratibha Patil on 24 July 2012, media reports in April claimed that Kalam was likely to be nominated for his second term.[63][64][65]After the reports, social networking sites witnessed a number of people supporting his candidature.[66][67]The BJP potentially backed his nomination, saying that the party would lend their support if the Trinamool Congress, Samajwadi Party and Indian National Congress proposed him for the 2012 presidential election.[68][69]A month ahead of the election, Mulayam Singh Yadav and Mamata Banerjee also expressed their support for Kalam.[70]Days afterwards, Mulayam Singh Yadav backed out, leaving Mamata Banerjee as the solitary supporter.[71]On 18 June 2012, Kalam declined to contest the 2012 presidential poll. He said of his decision not to do so:
Many, many citizens have also expressed the same wish. It only reflects their love and affection for me and the aspiration of the people. I am really overwhelmed by this support. This being their wish, I respect it. I want to thank them for the trust they have in me.[72]


Kalam at Bijnor
After leaving office, Kalam became a visiting professor at the Indian Institute of Management Shillong, the Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, and the Indian Institute of Management Indore; an honorary fellow of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore;[73]chancellor of the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology Thiruvananthapuram; professor of Aerospace Engineering at Anna University; and an adjunct at many other academic and research institutions across India. He taught information technology at the International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad, and technology at Banaras Hindu University and Anna University.[74]
In May 2012, Kalam launched a programme for the youth of India called the What Can I Give Movement, with a central theme of defeating corruption.[75][76]He also enjoyed writing Tamil poetry and playing the veenai, a South Indian string instrument.[77]Kalam listened to Carnatic devotional music every day and believed in the Hindu culture.[78]Kalam used to read Bhagavad Gita[79][80]and was a vegetarian.[1][81][82]He was nominated for the MTV Youth Icon of the Year award in 2003[83][84]and 2006.[85]In the 2011 Hindi film I Am Kalam, Kalam is portrayed as a positive influence on a poor but bright Rajasthaniboy named Chhotu, who renames himself Kalam in honour of his idol.[86]
In 2011, Kalam was criticised by civil groups over his stand on the Koodankulam Nuclear Power Plant; he supported the establishment of the nuclear power plant and was accused of not speaking with the local people.[87]The protesters were hostile to his visit as they perceived to him to be a pro-nuclear scientist and were unimpressed by the assurances provided by him regarding the safety features of the plant.[88]


On 27 July 2015, Kalam travelled to Shillongto deliver a lecture on "Creating a Livable Planet Earth". at the Indian Institute of Management Shillong. At around 6:35 p.m. IST, only five minutes into his lecture, he collapsed.[89][90]He was rushed to the nearby Bethany Hospital in a critical condition; upon arrival, he lacked a pulse or any other signs of life.[89]Despite being placed in the intensive care unit, Kalam was confirmed dead of a sudden cardiac arrest at 7:45 p.m IST.[89][91][92]
Following his death, Kalam's body was airlifted in an Indian Air Force helicopter from Shillong to Guwahati, from where it was flown to New Delhi on the morning of 28 July in an air force C-130J Hercules. The flight landed at Palam Air Base and was received by the President, the Prime Minister, Chief Minister of Delhi Arvind Kejriwal, and the three service chiefs of the Indian Armed Forces, who laid wreaths on Kalam's body.[93]His body was then placed on a gun carriage draped with the Indian flag and taken to his Delhi residence at 10 Rajaji Marg where the public and numerous dignitaries paid homage, including former prime minister Manmohan Singh, Congress president Sonia Gandhi, Rahul Gandhi, and Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Akhilesh Yadav.[94]
On the morning of 29 July, Kalam's body, wrapped in the Indian flag, was taken to Palam Air Base, from where it was flown to Madurai in an air force C-130J aircraft, arriving at Madurai Airport that afternoon. His body was received at the airport by the three service chiefs and national and state dignitaries, including cabinet ministers Manohar Parrikar, Venkaiah Naidu, Pon Radhakrishnan; and the governors of Tamil Nadu and Meghalaya, K Rosaiahand V. Shanmuganathan. After a brief ceremony, Kalam's body was flown in an air force helicopter to the town of Mandapam. From Mandapam, Kalam's body was taken in an army truck to his hometown of Rameswaram, where it was displayed in an open area in front of the local bus station to allow the public to pay their final respects until 8 p.m. that evening.[95][96]
On 30 July 2015, the former President was laid to rest at Rameswaram's Pei Karumbu Ground with full state honours. Over 350,000 people attended the last rites, including the Prime Minister, the governor of Tamil Nadu and the chief ministers of Karnataka, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh.[97][98]


India reacted to Kalam's death with an outpouring of grief; numerous tributes were paid to the former President across the nation and on social media.[99]The Government of India declared a seven-day state mourning period as a mark of respect.[100]President Pranab Mukherjee, Vice President Hamid Ansari, Home Minister Rajnath Singh, and other leaders condoled the former President's demise.[91]Prime Minister Narendra Modi said "his [Kalam's] death is a great loss to the scientific community. He took India to great heights. He showed the way."[101]Former Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh, who had served as prime minister under Kalam, said, "our country has lost a great human being who made phenomenal contributions to the promotion of self reliance in defence technologies. I worked very closely with Dr. Kalam as prime minister and I greatly benefited from his advice as president of our country. His life and work will be remembered for generations to come."[102]ISRO chairman A. S. Kiran Kumar called his former colleague "a great personality and a gentleman", while former chairman G. Madhavan Nair described Kalam as "a global leader" for whom "the downtrodden and poor people were his priority. He always had a passion to convey what is in his mind to the young generation", adding that his death left a vacuum which none could fill.[103][104]
South Asianleaders expressed condolences and lauded the late statesman. The Bhutanese government ordered the country's flags to fly at half-staff to mourn Kalam's death, and lit 1000 butter lamps in homage. Bhutanese Prime Minister Tshering Tobgay expressed deep sadness, saying Kalam "was a leader greatly admired by all people, especially the youth of India who have referred to him as the people’s President".[105]BangladeshPrime Minister Sheikh Hasina described Kalam as "a rare combination of a great statesman, acclaimed scientist, and a source of inspiration to the young generation of South Asia" and termed his death an "irreparable loss to India and beyond". Bangladesh Nationalist Party chief Khaleda Zia said "as a nuclear scientist, he engaged himself in the welfare of the people". Ashraf Ghani, the President of Afghanistan, called Kalam "an inspirational figure to millions of people," noting that "we have a lot to learn from his life". Nepalese Prime Minister Sushil Koirala recalled Kalam's scientific contributions to India: "Nepal has lost a good friend and I have lost an honoured and ideal personality." The President of Pakistan, Mamnoon Hussain, and Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif also expressed their grief and condolences on his passing.[106][107][108]The President of Sri Lanka, Maithripala Sirisena, also expressed his condolences. "Dr. Kalam was a man of firm conviction and indomitable spirit, and I saw him as an outstanding statesman of the world. His death is an irreparable loss not only to India but to the entire world."[109]The Commander-in-Chief of the Myanmar Armed Forces, Senior General Min Aung Hlaing, expressed condolences on behalf of the Myanmar government.[110]The Dalai Lama expressed his sadness and offered condolences and prayers, calling Kalam's death "an irreparable loss".[111]
Kathleen Wynne, the Premier of Ontario, which Kalam had visited on numerous occasions, expressed "deepest condolences ... as a respected scientist, he played a critical role in the development of the Indian space program. As a committed educator, he inspired millions of young people to achieve their very best. And as a devoted leader, he gained support both at home and abroad, becoming known as 'the people's President'. I join our Indo–Canadian families, friends, and neighbours in mourning the passing of this respected leader."[112]United States President Barack Obama extended "deepest condolences to the people of India on the passing of former Indian President Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam", and highlighted his achievements as a scientist and as a statesman, notably his role in strengthening U.S.–India relations and increasing space cooperation between the two nations. "Suitably named 'the People’s President', Dr. Kalam’s humility and dedication to public service served as an inspiration to millions of Indians and admirers around the world."[113]
Russian President Vladimir Putin expressed sincere condolences and conveyed his sympathy and support "to the near and dear ones of the deceased leader, to the government, and entire people of India". He remarked on Kalam's outstanding "personal contribution to the social, economic, scientific, and technical progress of India and in ensuring its national security," adding that Dr. Kalam would be remembered as a "consistent exponent of closer friendly relations between our nations, who has done a lot for cementing mutually beneficial Russian–Indian cooperation."[114]Other international leaders—including former Indonesian president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak, Singaporean Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, President of the United Arab Emirates Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, and Vice President and Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates and emir of Dubai Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum—also paid tribute to Kalam.[115][116]


A P J Abdul Kalam delivering a speech
In his book India 2020, Kalam strongly advocated an action plan to develop India into a "knowledge superpower" and a developed nation by the year 2020. He regarded his work on India's nuclear weapons programme as a way to assert India's place as a future superpower.[117]
I have identified five areas where India has a core competence for integrated action: (1) agriculture and food processing; (2) education and healthcare; (3) information and communication technology; (4) infrastructure, reliable and quality electric power, surface transport and infrastructure for all parts of the country; and (5) self-reliance in critical technologies. These five areas are closely inter-related and if advanced in a coordinated way, will lead to food, economic and national security.
Kalam describes a "transformative moment" in his life when he asked Pramukh Swami, the guru of the BAPS Swaminarayan Sampradaya, how India might realize this five-pronged vision of development.  Pramukh Swami’s answer—to add a sixth area developing faith in God and spirituality to overcome the current climate of crime and corruption—became the spiritual vision for the next 15 years Kalam’s life, which he describes in his final book, Transcendence: My Spiritual Experiences with Pramukh Swamiji, published just a month before his death.[118]
It was reported that there was considerable demand in South Korea for translated versions of books authored by him.[119]
Kalam took an active interest in other developments in the field of science and technology, including a research programme for developing biomedical implants. He also supported open source technology over proprietary software, predicting that the use of free software on a large scale would bring the benefits of information technology to more people.[120]
Kalam set a target of interacting with 100,000 students during the two years after his resignation from the post of scientific adviser in 1999.[17]He explained, "I feel comfortable in the company of young people, particularly high school students. Henceforth, I intend to share with them experiences, helping them to ignite their imagination and preparing them to work for a developed India for which the road map is already available."[17]

Awards and honours

Kalam has received honorary doctorates from 40 universities.[121][122]The Government of India has honoured him with the Padma Bhushan in 1981 and the Padma Vibhushan in 1990 for his work with ISRO and DRDO and his role as a scientific advisor to the Government.[123]In 1997, Kalam received India's highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna, for his contribution to the scientific research and modernisation of defence technology in India.[124]In 2013, he was the recipient of the Von Braun Award from the National Space Society "to recognize excellence in the management and leadership of a space-related project".[125]
Year of award or honour
Name of award or honour
Awarding organisation
Doctor of Laws (Honoris Causa)
International von Kármán Wings Award
Doctor of Engineering (Honoris Causa)
Doctor of Science (Honoris Causa)
Honorary Doctorate of Science and Technology
King Charles II Medal
Honorary Doctorate of Science
Alwars Research Centre, Chennai[141]
Indian National Congress[10][141]
Government of India[141][142]
Distinguished Fellow
Government of India[141][144]
Government of India[141][144]

Books and documentaries

Kalam's writings
  • Developments in Fluid Mechanics and Space Technology by A P J Abdul Kalam and Roddam Narasimha; Indian Academy of Sciences, 1988[145]
  • India 2020: A Vision for the New Millennium by A P J Abdul Kalam, Y. S. Rajan; New York, 1998.[146]
  • Wings of Fire: An Autobiography by A P J Abdul Kalam, Arun Tiwari; Universities Press, 1999.[8]
  • Ignited Minds: Unleashing the Power Within India by A P J Abdul Kalam; Viking, 2002.[147]
  • The Luminous Sparks by A P J Abdul Kalam, by; Punya Publishing Pvt Ltd, 2004.[148]
  • Mission India by A P J Abdul Kalam, Paintings by Manav Gupta; Penguin Books, 2005[149]
  • Inspiring Thoughts by A P J Abdul Kalam; Rajpal & Sons, 2007[150]
  • Indomitable Spirit by A P J Abdul Kalam; Rajpal and Sons Publishing[151]
  • Envisioning an Empowered Nation by A P J Abdul Kalam with A Sivathanu Pillai; Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi
  • You Are Born To Blossom: Take My Journey Beyond by A P J Abdul Kalam and Arun Tiwari; Ocean Books, 2011.[152]
  • Turning Points: A journey through challenges by A P J Abdul Kalam; Harper Collins India, 2012.[153]
  • Target 3 Billion" by A P J Abdul Kalam and Srijan Pal Singh; December 2011 | Publisher Penguin Books.
  • My Journey: (titled எனது பயணம் - Tamil) Transforming Dreams into Actions by A P J Abdul Kalam; August 2013 by the Rupa Publication.
  • A Manifesto for Change: A Sequel to India 2020 by A P J Abdul Kalam and V Ponraj; July 2014 by Harper Collins.[154]
  • Forge your Future: Candid, Forthright, Inspiring by A P J Abdul Kalam; by Rajpal and Sons, 29 October 2014.[155]
  • Reignited: Scientific Pathways to a Brighter Future by A P J Abdul Kalam and Srijan Pal Singh; by Penguin India, 14 May 2015.[156]
  • Transcendence: My Spiritual Experiences with Pramukh Swamiji by A P J Abdul Kalam with Arun Tiwari; HarperCollins Publishers, June 2015[157]
  • Eternal Quest: Life and Times of Dr Kalam by S Chandra; Pentagon Publishers, 2002.[158]
  • President A P J Abdul Kalam by R K Pruthi; Anmol Publications, 2002.[159]
  • A P J Abdul Kalam: The Visionary of India by K Bhushan, G Katyal; A P H Pub Corp, 2002.[160]
  • A Little Dream (documentary film) by P. Dhanapal; Minveli Media Works Private Limited, 2008.[161]
  • The Kalam Effect: My Years with the President by P M Nair; Harper Collins, 2008.[162]
  • My Days With Mahatma Abdul Kalam by Fr A K George; Novel Corporation, 2009.[163]

See also


1.                              "Kalam And Islam".
2.                              editor; Ramchandani, vice president Dale Hoiberg; editor South Asia, Indu (2000). A to C (Abd Allah ibn al-Abbas to Cypress). New Delhi: Encyclopædia Britannica (India). p. 2. ISBN 978-0-85229-760-5.
3.                              Pruthi, R. K. (2005). "Ch. 4. Missile Man of India". President A.P.J. Abdul Kalam. Anmol Publications. pp. 61–76. ISBN 978-81-261-1344-6.
4.                              "India's 'Mr. Missile': A man of the people". 30 July 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
5.                              "Kalam's unrealised 'Nag' missile dream to become reality next year". 30 July 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
6.                              Sen, Amartya (2003). "India and the Bomb". In M. V. Ramana and C. Rammanohar Reddy. Prisoners of the Nuclear Dream. Sangam Books. pp. 167–188. ISBN 978-81-250-2477-4.
7.                              "Dr Abdul Kalam, People's President in Sri Lanka". Daily News via HighBeam Research. 23 January 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
8.                              Kalam, Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul; Tiwari, Arun (1 January 1999). Wings of Fire: An Autobiography. Universities Press. ISBN 978-81-7371-146-6. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
9.                              Jai, Janak Raj (1 January 2003). Presidents of India, 1950–2003. Regency Publications. p. 296. ISBN 978-81-87498-65-0. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
10.                          "Bio-data: Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam". Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 1 March 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
12.                          "The greatest student India ever had".
13.                          "Brother awaits Kalam last trip".
14.                          "How two orthodox Brahmins played a crucial role in APJ Abdul Kalam’s childhood".
15.                          "Day before death, Kalam enquired about elder brother's health".
16.                          Sharma, Mahesh; Das, P.K.; Bhalla, P. (2004). Pride of the Nation : Dr. A.P.J Abdul Kalam. Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd. p. 13. ISBN 978-81-288-0806-7. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
17.                          Bhushan, K.; Katyal, G. (2002). A.P.J. Abdul Kalam: The Visionary of India. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. pp. 1–10,153. ISBN 9788176483803.
18.                          K. Raju; S. Annamalai (24 September 2006). "Kalam meets the teacher who moulded him". The Hindu(Chennai, India). Retrieved 29 June 2012.
19.                          Dixit, Sumita Vaid (18 March 2010). "The boy from Rameswaram who became President". Rediff.com. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
20.                          "Failed in my dream of becoming pilot: Abdul Kalam in new book". The Hindu(Chennai, India). 18 August 2013. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
21.                          "Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam". National Informatics Centre. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
22.                          Gopalakrishnan, Karthika (23 June 2009). "Kalam tells students to follow their heart". The Times of India (Chennai, India). Retrieved 4 July 2012.
23.                          Educational Foundation for Nuclear Science, Inc. (November 1989). Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Educational Foundation for Nuclear Science, Inc. pp. 32–. ISSN 0096-3402. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
24.                          "Missile Chronology, 1971–1979" (PDF). James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies at Monterey Institute of International Studies, Nuclear Threat Initiative. July 2003. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
25.                          "The prime motivator". Frontline. 22 June – 5 July 2002. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
26.                          Pandit, Rajat (9 January 2008). "Missile plan: Some hits, misses". The Times of India. TNN. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
27.                          Jerome M. Conley (2001). Indo-Russian military and nuclear cooperation: lessons and options for U.S. policy in South Asia. Lexington Books. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-7391-0217-6. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
28.                          ANI (8 November 2011). "Koodankulam nuclear plant: A. P. J. Abdul Kalam's safety review has failed to satisfy nuke plant protestors, expert laments". The Economic Times (Chennai, India). Retrieved 20 June 2012.
29.                          R., Ramachandran (12–25 September 2009). "Pokhran row". Frontline. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
30.                          Hardnews bureau (August 2009). "Pokhran II controversy needless: PM". Hard News. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
31.                          "Story of indigenous stents". The Hindu-Businessline (India). 15 August 2001.
32.                          "The stent man". Rediff-News (India). 19 December 1998.
33.                          Gopal, M. Sai (22 March 2012). "Now, 'Kalam-Raju tablet' for healthcare workers". The Hindu (India). Retrieved 19 April 2012.
34.                          "Former Presidents, Rashtrapati Bhavan". Retrieved Jul 28, 2015.
35.                          Times News Network (11 June 2002). "NDA's smart missile: President Kalam". The Economic Times. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
36.                          "With him at the helm, there is hope that things might change".
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110.                      "Sr. Gen. U Min Aung Hliang, Commander-in-Chief of Myanmar Defence Services calls on PM". Business Standard. 29 July 2015. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
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Shaunak Chakraborty

Shaunak Chakraborty(in Hindi शौनक चक्रवर्ती and in Bengali শৌনক চক্রবর্তী) is an Indianwriter, author, poet and the founder of Gyaanipedia ( born on 23 December 2000) in India's former capital Kolkata which is the present capital of Indian state West Bengal. He is popularly known for his poems written in India's national language Hindi.The early life of Shaunak Chakraborty was full of pain and tragedies as his mother was not well, she was admitted to Eastern Command Hospital for three years (year 2000 - 2003). Shaunak's grandmother Mitali Chakraborty and home maid Rajni Kumari had done a lot for him for the initial three years of his life. 2000 - 2003 The initial three years of Chakraborty's life is probably the hardest portion of his life. At first he got hate from his own family members as they demand a girl child but Chakraborty is a boy. So they use to wear him female cloths.

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